Category Archives: Proiecte

Justiția Juvenilă de la A la Z

În cadrul proiectului AWAY a fost realizată o broșură, intitulată „Justiția Juvenilă de la A la Z”, al cărei conținut corespunde nivelului de înțelegere al copiilor și tinerilor și care este adaptată la specificul legislativ local din România. 

Tematica ei abordează sistemul de justiție juvenilă, inclusiv metodele alternative de soluționare a procesului penal ( eng diversion) și prezintă tinerilor atât rolurile diferiților specialiști cât și drepturile de care beneficiază, în calitate de suspecți inculpați, martori sau victime. 

Vă invităm să descoperiți varianta electronică a broșurii in limba română aici: Justitia Juvenila de la A la Z

Training of professionals in the AWAY project – An effort to improve the juvenile justice (JJ) in Romania                   

Between October and November 2018, a two-day training course was organised in Bucharest, Craiova and Brasov for a mixed group of specialists active in the field of juvenile justice, education and child protection. Over 60 participants studied in depth the notions of alternative diversion methods for solving the criminal trial and process for the youth in conflict with the law. The training course also facilitated the creation of an active network of professionals, including probation counsellors, psychologists, social workers, lawyers, school counsellors, prosecutors, police officers and representatives of local communities and other organisations active in the field.    

The training was taught by experts in the field, namely Mrs. Smaranda Witec, Lecturer at the Faculty of Social Work and Sociology, University of Bucharest, Mrs. Georgiana Gheorghe, Executive Director of APADOR-CH, Mrs. Nicoleta Popescu, from APADOR-CH and Mr. Silviu Dumitru, GRADO Expert.

The trainees appreciated the most the debates related to the case studies, the interactive nature of the training, which opened the space for communication and learning, the description of the methods of intervention and, last but not least, the exchange of good practices.   

Training at Craiova – the exercise of the “network” of professionals intervening in the case of a child in conflict with the law

 

The project AWAY„Alternative Ways to Address Youth” seeks to increase public awareness of alternative diversion methods of dealing with the criminal process and trial and to increase the level of information on the procedural guarantees of EU Directives 2016/800, 2012/13, 2012/29 applicable to juveniles in conflict with the law. AWAY is coordinated by the Regional Office for Central and South-Eastern Europe of the Foundation „Terre des hommes” and implemented by organisations in Europe that are focused on juvenile justice. The project is supported by the European Union’s Rights, Equality and Citizenship Programme and is active in five countries across Europe: Bulgaria, through the involvement of the Judicial System Development Programme (PDSJ), Croatia through Brave Phone Croatia, Romania through Terre des Hommes-Switzerland , Belgium, through Defence for Children International (DCI) and the International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO), Hungary, under the coordination of the Terre des hommes Regional Office for Central and Southeast Europe (Applicant) and the Global Network for Public Interest Law – PILNET.

AWAY is co-funded by the REC Programme of the European Union.

How to deal in justice with the juveniles who are not criminally responsible

When we talk about juvenile justice, we refer to children in conflict with the law. Beyond the legal component, juvenile justice also includes social elements such as the social and psychological rehabilitation of children in conflict with the law and the prevention of situations where children may be in conflict with the law. In this context, we can say that the role of juvenile justice is to prevent the delinquency of underage children, to solve the criminal processes they are involved in and to reintegrate them into society. It is a mission assumed not only by the justice system but also by the child protection system, which will always pursue the respect of the best interests of the child.

 

What happens to underage children committing crimes but not criminally responsible?

According to Decision 102/2018 regarding the provisions of art. 505 of the Criminal Procedure Code, “age and discernment are the criteria for distinguishing between the juveniles who are criminally responsible and those who are not, and the lawmaker divided the age of the minority into three periods: up to 14 years the absolute presumption of innocence applies, between 14 and 16 years of age the relative presumption of innocence operates, i.e. the presence or absence of discernment at the time of committing the criminal deed, and the juvenile is criminally responsible over 16 years of age. Even if, in the latter case, the person is reasonably presumed to have discernment and was able to grasp the seriousness of the act he/she has committed and the socially dangerous consequences of the crime, the legislator considers that this capacity is not fully formed, which justifies the different sanctioning regime of criminal offenses committed by juveniles.

The decisions made in relation with juveniles in conflict with the law should favour rehabilitation and reintegration, to the detriment of more punitive approaches. Custodial measures should be used as a last resort and for the shortest possible time. Priority is given to non-custodial measures that can be implemented within the community. 

Underage children have the right to be informed about the procedures and likely results of the trials and processes they are involved in, have the right to participate actively in the decision-making process. Families, communities and other important people have to participate in the process of rehabilitation and reintegration – a valuable principle. Collaboration is rather declarative at this time. The staff interacting with juveniles in conflict with the law should be provided with specialized training and procedures, but this is often not the case in practice. 

For the underage children who are not criminally responsible and commit a criminal offense, the law provides for special protection measures, namely placement and specialised supervisory probation up to 18 years of age or until graduation from studies (not more than 26 years of age). The concrete procedure is similar to that of the juvenile who is criminally responsible in first instance – the police identify the suspect, and if the suspect is under 14 years of age he/she is referred to DGASPC, and the latter draws up an individualized protection plan that is presented to the Commission for the Protection of Children’s Rights by the Secretary of the County Council. With the presentation of the individual plan, a special protection measure – placement or specialized supervisory probation is proposed. If the parents or guardians disagree with this measure, they can address the court.

What should always be considered by the court dealing with cases with juvenile offenders is the preponderance of the educational purpose of the educational measure, and not its sanctioning purpose, and to do so in accordance with this principle. Among the non-custodial educational measures available in the legislation, we may list civic training, supervision, weekend confinement and daily assistance.

The Foundation Terre des hommes aims that through the project AWAY („Alternative Ways in Addressing Youth”) to promote alternative diversion methods).

The number of decisions establishing these special protection measures is increasing in Romania – for example, the measure of residential placement on the national level is increasing. We had 69 cases in 2013, and 100 cases in 2016. At the same time, the number of children in conflict with the law subjected to the measure of specialised supervision has dropped from 988 in 2011 to 454 in 2016.

However, the figures and statistics provided by the institutions are not always clear or realistic, with specialists considering, for example, that the number of children for whom the placement measure is being instituted is actually higher.

We will find a critical analysis of the juvenile justice system in Romania, with a special focus on alternative diversion methods in the national survey “Alternative Diversion Methods for the Juveniles in Romania”. The assessment has been developed from the perspective of EU standards (Directives 2012/29, 2001/220, 2012/800) but also of important UN standards (such as the Beijing Regulation, the Riyadh Guidelines and others).  

The study was conducted by Prof. Dr. Ioan Durnescu, Faculty of Sociology and Social Assistance within the Bucharest University and Mrs. Corina Popa, Juvenile Justice Program Manager, Terre des hommes Foundation, between March 2017 and March 2018.

 

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The Project AWAY (Alternative Ways to Address Youth), which aims to raise public awareness of alternative diversion methods for solving the criminal trial and to ensure that professionals from different multidisciplinary fields become more aware and better prepared about diversion methods for suspected / investigated children benefiting from the procedural guarantees of EU Directives 2016/800, 2012/13, 2012/29. AWAY is supported by the European Union’s Rights, Equality and Citizenship Program and is active in five countries across Europe: Bulgaria through the involvement of the Judicial System Development Program (PDSJ), Croatia through Brave Phone Croatia, Romania through Terre des Hommes-Switzerland , Belgium, through Defence for Children International (DCI) and the International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO), Hungary, under the coordination of the Terre des hommes Regional Office for Central and Southeast Europe (Applicant) and the Global Network for Public Interest Law – PILNET.

 

JUVENILE DIVERSION IN ROMANIA.Working in isolation.

This report presents an analysis of the juvenile justice system in Romania with a special focus on the diversion measures. The evaluation was conducted in the light of EU standards (Directives 2012/29; 2001/220; 2012/800) but also important UN standards (such as Havana Rules, Beijing Rules, Riyadh Guidelines and so on).
The evaluation was based on extensive literature review, legislative analysis, documentation, interviews and focus-groups. Juveniles themselves played an important role in identifying the gaps
and solutions.

You can find the research here in Romanian and here in English.

As far as diversion is concerned, Romania enjoys a progressive legislation that allows more juveniles
to be diverted from the conventional justice than convicted ones. Approximately 4,000 juveniles are
diverted from prosecution every year. However, there are early signs that this trend might cease in
the near future as stakeholders are not fully satisfied with the outcomes of diversion. Participants in
this research noted that a more professional response is needed in order to consolidate the status of
diversion. In concrete terms, they suggested:

  • better training for the professionals involved,
  • legislative changes that will bring juvenile obligations under the child protection or probation umbrella,
  • a better monitoring system of the juvenile justice.

Overall, the juvenile justice legislation was found in line with the European and international standards.
There are still slight changes that would make the system work more efficient. One of the main
recommendations of this report is to adopt a national strategy for juvenile justice that would ensure a
coherent and coordinated mechanism of implementation. Institutional fragmentation and insufficient
specialization of staff were the most significant obstacles identified in this report. A national strategy,
a registry of children in conflict with the law, clear standards and procedures together with systematic
training could deal effectively with these difficulties.

Juveniles themselves and their families could also play a more active role in designing and implementing
effective interventions with children in conflict with the law.

The research was written by Prof. Dr. Ioan Durnescu – Sociology and Social Work Faculty, University of Bucharest and by Corina Popa, former Project Manager of AWAY – Alternative Ways to Address Youth, Terre des hommes Romania, between march 2017 – march 2018.

ALTERNATIVE LA TRIMITEREA ÎN JUDECATĂ A MINORILOR ÎN ROMÂNIA. UN SISTEM FRAGMENTAT.

Acest raport prezintă o analiză a sistemului de justiție juvenilă în România, cu un accent deosebit pe măsurile alternative la trimiterea în judecată (engl. diversion). Evaluarea a fost efectuată din perspectiva standardelor UE (Directivele 2012/29; 2001/220; 2012/800;), dar și a unor standarde importante ale ONU (precum Regulamentul de la Havana, Regulamentul de la Beijing, Liniile Directoare de la Riyadh și altele).

Studiul îl puteți descărca de aici în limba română și de aici în limba engleză.

Evaluarea a pornit de la o revizuire amănunțită a literaturii în materie și a continuat cu o analiză legislativă, o documentare atentă și o serie de interviuri și focus-grupuri. Minorii au jucat ei înșiși un rol important în identificarea lacunelor și soluțiilor.

În ceea ce privește măsurile alternative la trimiterea în judecată, România se bucură de o legislație progresistă care permite ca o bună parte dintre minorii care comit fapte penale să fie scoși din circuitul justiției clasice prin aplicarea unor măsuri alternative la trimiterea în judecată. Un număr de aproximativ 4000 de minori beneficiază anual de măsuri alternative la trimiterea în judecată. Cu toate acestea, există semnale că această tendință ar putea să ia o altă direcție în viitorul apropiat, deoarece unii dintre actorii implicați nu sunt pe deplin mulțumiti de modul de executare a măsurilor alternative la trimiterea în judecată. Participanții la această cercetare au remarcat că este nevoie de un răspuns mai profesionist pentru a consolida statutul măsurilor alternative la trimiterea în judecată.

Concret, aceștia au sugerat:

  • o mai bună formare a profesioniștilor implicați;
  • modificări legislative care să plaseze obligațiile minorilor în sfera protecției copilului sau a probațiunii;
  • un sistem mai bun de monitorizare a justiției pentru minori.

În ansamblu, legislația în materie de justiție juvenilă a fost evaluată ca fiind în conformitate cu standardele europene și internaționale. Totuși, unele modificări minore ar putea face sistemul să funcționeze mai eficient.

Una dintre principalele recomandări ale acestui raport este adoptarea unei strategii naționale pentru justiția juvenilă care să asigure un mecanism coerent și coordonat de punere în executare a măsurilor de protecție specială sau de sancționare penală a minorilor care au comis fapte penale. Fragmentarea instituțională și specializarea insuficientă a personalului au fost cele mai importante obstacole identificate în acest raport. O strategie națională, un registru al copiilor aflați în conflict cu legea, standarde și proceduri clare, împreună cu formarea sistematică ar putea contracara eficient aceste dificultăți. Minorii și familiile lor ar putea juca, de asemenea, un rol mai activ în conceperea și implementarea unor intervenții eficiente care să-i vizeze pe copiii în conflict cu legea.

Studiul a fost realizat de Prof. Dr. Ioan Durnescu – Facultatea de Sociologie și Asistență Socială din cadrul Universității Bucuresti și de Corina Popa, fost Manager al Proiectului AWAY – Modalități Alternative în Administrarea Justiției pentru Minori și Tineri, Terre des hommes România, în perioada martie 2017 – martie 2018.

Modalități Altenative în Administrarea Justiției pentru Minori și Tineri (AWAY) (2017-2018)

Proiectul AWAY urmărește să crească conștientizarea publică referitoare la diversiune, metodă restaurativă a sistemului de justiție juvenilă. Deși există servicii disponibile și oportunități pentru a dezvolta practica diversiunii, acestea nu sunt adecvate sau eficiente.

În perioada 2017-2018, în cadrul proiectului sunt prevăzute: elaborarea de cercetări, capacitarea profesioniștilor și campanii de informare, ce vor avea loc în Ungaria, Bulgaria, Croația, România și Belgia.  

AWAY este coordonat de Biroul Regional pentru Europa Centrală și de Sud-Est al Fundației Terre des hommes și implementat de organizații din Europa care sunt axate pe justiție juvenilă. Proiectul este susținut de Programul Drepturi, Egalitate și Cetățenie al Uniunii Europene și este activ în cinci țări din Europa :

  1. Bulgaria, prin implicarea Programului pentru Dezvoltarea Sistemului Judiciar (PDSJ)
  2. Croatia, prin Brave Phone Croația
  3. Romania, prin Terre des hommes-Elveția
  4. Belgia, prin Defence for Children International (DCI) și International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO)
  5. Ungaria, sub coordonarea Biroului Regional Terre des hommes pentru Europa Centrală și de Sud-Est (Aplicant) și Global Network for Public Interest Law – PILNET

Proiectul urmărește să asigure că profesioniștii din diferite domenii multidisciplinare devin mai conștienți și mai bine pregătiți referitor la metodele de diversiune pentru copiii suspecți / anchetați care beneficiază de garanțiile procedurale ale Directivelor EU 2016/800, 2012/13, 2012/29.

Pentru a atinge acest obiectiv, noi intenționăm să:          

  • Dezvoltăm o bază de date care să includă informații comprehensive legate de practica diversiunii în sistemul de justiție juvenilă, existent în regiune;
  • Elaborăm și livrăm un curs individual de e-learning;

Cititi intreaga comunicare aici

The project AWAY is being co-funded by the European Union